Investigation of Renal Decline and New Onset Dialysis Following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative. Journal Article

Authors: DeJong, M; Peterson, L; Zielke, T; Simone, A; Penton, A; Blecha, M
Article Title: Investigation of Renal Decline and New Onset Dialysis Following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to identify variables significantly associated with renal function decline after elective endovascular infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and to identify the rate and risks of subsequent progression to dialysis. Specifically, we investigate the long-term impact of supra-renal fixation, female gender, and physiologically stressful perioperative events on renal function following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS: Review of all EVAR cases in the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2003 and 2021 was conducted to investigate variable associations with three primary outcomes: postoperative acute renal insufficiency (ARI); greater than 30% decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients beyond 1 year of follow up; and new onset dialysis requirement at any point in follow up. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed for the events of acute renal insufficiency and new onset dialysis requirement. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed regarding long term GFR decline. RESULTS: Postoperative ARI occurred in 3.4% (1692/49 772) of patients. Significant ( .05) association with postoperative ARI was noted for: age (OR 1.014/year, 95% CI 1.008-1.021); female gender (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.27-1.67); hypertension (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.44); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.50); anemia (OR 4.24, 95% CI 3.71-4.84); reoperation at index admission (OR 7.86, 95% CI 6.47-9.54); baseline renal insufficiency (OR 2.29, 95% CI 2.03-2.56); larger aneurysm diameter; increased blood loss; and higher volumes of intra-operative crystalloid. Risk factors ( .05) correlating with a decline of 30% in GFR at any time beyond 1 year were: female gender (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.65); body mass index (BMI) less than 20 (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.74); hypertension (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.64); diabetes (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17-1.53); COPD (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.37); anemia (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.52-2.42); baseline renal insufficiency (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49); absence of discharge ace-inhibitor (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42); long term re-intervention (HR 2.43, 95% CI 1.84-3.21) and larger AAA diameter. Patients who experienced long term GRF decline had a significantly higher long-term morality. New onset dialysis following EVAR occurred in .47% (234/49 772) of those meeting inclusion criteria. Higher rate (P .05) of new onset dialysis was associated with age (OR 1.03/year, 95% CI 1.02-1.05); diabetes (OR 1.376, 95% CI 1.005-1.885); baseline renal insufficiency (OR 6.32, 95% CI4.59-8.72); Reoperation at index admission (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.03-5.67); postoperative ARI (OR 23.29, 95% CI 16.99-31.91); absence of beta blocker (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.49); long term graft encroachment on renal arteries (OR 4.91, 95% CI 1.49-16.14). CONCLUSIONS: New onset dialysis following EVAR is a rare event. Perioperative variables influencing renal function following EVAR include blood loss, arterial injury, and reoperation. Supra-renal fixation is not associated with postoperative acute renal insufficiency or new onset dialysis in long term follow up. Renal protective measures are recommended for patients with baseline renal insufficiency undergoing EVAR as acute renal insufficiency following EVAR portends a 20-fold increased risk of new onset dialysis in long term follow up.
Journal Title: Vascular and endovascular surgery
ISSN: 1938-9116; 1538-5744
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2022