The Impact of Perioperative Morbidities, Lack of Discharge Aspirin, and Lack of Discharge Statin on Long Term Survival Following EVAR. Journal Article

Authors: Penton, A; DeJong, M; Zielke, T; Nam, J; Blecha, M
Article Title: The Impact of Perioperative Morbidities, Lack of Discharge Aspirin, and Lack of Discharge Statin on Long Term Survival Following EVAR.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Adverse perioperative events and discharge medications both have the potential to impact survival following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). We hypothesize that variables such as blood loss, reoperation in the same hospital admission, and lack of discharge statin/aspirin have significant effect on long term survival following EVAR. Similarly, other perioperative morbidities, are hypothesized to affect long term mortality. Quantifying the mortality effect of perioperative events and treatment emphasizes to physicians the critical nature of preoperative optimization, case planning, operative execution and postoperative patient management. METHODS: All EVAR in the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2003 and 2021 were queried. Exclusions were: ruptured/symptomatic aneurysm; concomitant renal artery or supra-renal intervention at the time of EVAR; conversion to open aneurysm repair at the time of initial operation; and undocumented mortality status at the 5 year mark postoperatively. 18,710 patients met inclusion criteria. Multivariable Cox regression time dependent analysis was performed to investigate the strength of mortality association of the exposure variables. Standard demographic variables and pre-existing major co-morbidities were included in the regression analysis to account for disproportionate, deleterious co-variables amongst those experiencing the various morbidities. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to provide survival curves for the key variables. RESULTS: Mean follow up was 5.99 years and 5-year survival for included patients was 69.2%. Cox regression revealed increased long term mortality to be associated with the following perioperative events: reoperation during the index hospital admission (HR 1.21, = .034), perioperative leg ischemia (HR 1.34, = .014), perioperative acute renal insufficiency (HR 1.24, = .013), perioperative myocardial infarction (HR 1.87, .001), perioperative intestinal ischemia (HR 2.13, .001), perioperative respiratory failure (HR 2.15, .001), lack of discharge aspirin (HR 1.26, .001), and lack of discharge statin (HR 1.26, .001). The following pre-existing co-morbidities correlated with increased long term mortality ( .001 for all) : body mass index under 20 kg/m, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, reported history congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral artery disease, advancing age, baseline renal insufficiency and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 50%. Females were more likely to have EBL >300 mL, reoperation, perioperative MI, limb ischemia and acute renal insufficiency than males ( .01 for all). Female sex trended but was not associated with increased long term mortality risk (HR 1.06, 95% CI .995-1.14, = .072). CONCLUSIONS: Survival after EVAR is improved with optimal operative planning to facilitate evading the need for reoperation and ensuring patients without contra-indication are discharged with aspirin and statin medications. Females and patients with pre-existing co-morbidity are at particularly higher risk for perioperative limb ischemia, renal insufficiency, intestinal ischemia and myocardial ischemia necessitating appropriate preparation and preventative measures.
Journal Title: Vascular and endovascular surgery
ISSN: 1938-9116; 1538-5744
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2023