Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury Journal Article

Authors: Shults, J. A.; Curtis, B. J.; Chen, M. M.; O'Halloran, E. B.; Ramirez, L; Kovacs, E. J.
Article Title: Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury
Abstract: Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone. Overall, our study identifies plethysmography as a useful tool for characterizing respiratory function in a murine burn model and for future identification of therapeutic compounds capable of restoring pulmonary functionality.
Journal Title: Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
Volume: 49
Issue: 7
ISSN: 1873-6823; 0741-8329
Publisher: Unknown  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2015
Start Page: 713
End Page: 720
Language: eng
Notes: LR: 20151107; CI: Copyright (c) 2015; GR: F30 AA022856/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/United States; GR: F31 AA022566/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/United States; GR: F32 AA021636/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/United States; GR: R01 AA012034/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/United States; GR: R01 GM115257/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States; GR: T32 AA013527/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/United States; JID: 8502311; NIHMS722312; OID: NLM: NIHMS722312 [Available on 11/01/16]; OID: NLM: PMC4636440 [Available on 11/01/16]; OTO: NOTNLM; PMCR: 2016/11/01 00:00; 2015/04/10 [received]; 2015/06/18 [revised]; 2015/06/19 [accepted]; 2015/08/14 [aheadofprint]; ppublish