The associations between alcohol intake and cardiometabolic risk in African-origin adults spanning the epidemiologic transition. Journal Article

Authors: Baghdan, D; Dugas, LR; Choo-Kang, C; Plange-Rhule, J; Bovet, P; Viswanathan, B; Forrester, T; Lambert, EV; Riesen, W; Korte, W; Choudhry, MA; Luke, A
Article Title: The associations between alcohol intake and cardiometabolic risk in African-origin adults spanning the epidemiologic transition.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic (CM) risk affects approximately 25% of adults globally, and is diagnosed by meeting 3 out of 5 of the following CM risk factors: elevated blood pressure, high triglycerides, elevated blood sugar, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, and abdominal obesity. Adults with CM risk are approximately 22% more likely to have higher mortality rates, and alcohol consumption may be associated with higher CM risk. While previous studies have investigated this potential connection, the majority of them did not include African-origin adults. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the association between alcohol intake and CM risk in 5 African-origin cohorts, spanning the epidemiologic transition in Ghana, South Africa, Jamaica, Seychelles and the United States of America. METHODS: Measurements included clinical measures for CM risk and self-reported alcohol consumption. Each participant was categorized into one of three drinking categories: non-drinker, light drinker (1-3 drinks daily for men and 1-2 drinks daily for women) and heavy drinker (4 or more drinks every day for men and 3 or more drinks per day for women). Using non-drinker status as the reference, the association between alcohol consumption status and prevalence of each of the five CM risk factors and overall elevated CM risk (having 3 out of 5 risk factors) was explored, adjusting for site, age and sex. Associations were explored using logistic regression and significance was determined using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Neither light nor heavy drinking was associated with increased odds for having higher CM risk compared to nondrinkers (OR?=?1.05, p =?0.792 and OR?=?1.11, p =?0.489, respectively). However, light drinking was associated with lower odds for having low high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol (OR?=?0.69, p =?0.002) and increased risk for high triglycerides (OR?=?1.48, p =?0.030). Heavy drinking was associated with elevated blood pressure (OR?=?1.59, p =?0.002), high triglycerides (OR?=?1.73, p =?0.006) and decreased risk of low HDL-cholesterol (OR?=?0.621, p 0.0005). Finally, country-specific analyses indicated that the relationship between heavy drinking and elevated CM risk varied widely across sites. CONCLUSION: While several CM risk factors were associated with alcohol consumption, the associations were inconsistent and varied widely across five international cohorts of African-origin. Future studies should focus on understanding the individual site-related effects.
Journal Title: BMC public health
ISSN: 1471-2458; 1471-2458
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2021