Neurovirulent Murine Coronavirus JHM.SD Uses Cellular Zinc Metalloproteases for Virus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion Journal Article

Authors: Phillips, J. M.; Gallagher, T.; Weiss, S. R.
Article Title: Neurovirulent Murine Coronavirus JHM.SD Uses Cellular Zinc Metalloproteases for Virus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion
Abstract: The coronavirus (CoV) S protein requires cleavage by host cell proteases to mediate virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. Many strains of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) have distinct, S-dependent organ and tissue tropisms despite using a common receptor, suggesting that they employ different cellular proteases for fusion. In support of this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of endosomal acidification only modestly decreased entry, and overexpression of the cell surface protease TMPRSS2 greatly enhanced entry, of the highly neurovirulent MHV strain JHM.SD relative to their effects on the reference strain, A59. However, TMPRSS2 overexpression decreased MHV structural protein expression, release of infectious particles, and syncytium formation, and endogenous serine protease activity did not contribute greatly to infection. We therefore investigated the importance of other classes of cellular proteases and found that inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)- and a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-family zinc metalloproteases markedly decreased both entry and cell-cell fusion. Suppression of virus by metalloprotease inhibition varied among tested cell lines and MHV S proteins, suggesting a role for metalloprotease use in strain-dependent tropism. We conclude that zinc metalloproteases must be considered potential contributors to coronavirus fusion.IMPORTANCE The family Coronaviridae includes viruses that cause two emerging diseases of humans, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), as well as a number of important animal pathogens. Because coronaviruses depend on host protease-mediated cleavage of their S proteins for entry, a number of protease inhibitors have been proposed as antiviral agents. However, it is unclear which proteases mediate in vivo infection. For example, SARS-CoV infection of cultured cells depends on endosomal acid pH-dependent proteases rather than on the cell surface acid pH-independent serine protease TMPRSS2, but Zhou et al. (Antiviral Res 116:76-84, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.01.011) found that a serine protease inhibitor was more protective than a cathepsin inhibitor in SARS-CoV-infected mice. This paper explores the contributions of endosomal acidification and various proteases to coronavirus infection and identifies an unexpected class of proteases, the matrix metalloproteinase and ADAM families, as potential targets for anticoronavirus therapy.
Journal Title: Journal of virology
Volume: 91
Issue: 8
ISSN: 1098-5514; 0022-538X
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2017
Start Page: 10.1128/JVI.01564
End Page: 16. Print 2017 Apr 15
Language: eng
Notes: LR: 20170515; CI: Copyright (c) 2017; GR: K08 AI098503/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States; JID: 0113724; EC 3.4.- (Metalloproteases); OTO: NOTNLM; PMCR: 2017/09/29; 2016/08/05 [received]; 2017/01/24 [accepted]; epublish