Ready, set, fuse! The coronavirus spike protein and acquisition of fusion competence Journal Article

Authors: Heald-Sargent, T.; Gallagher, T.
Article Title: Ready, set, fuse! The coronavirus spike protein and acquisition of fusion competence
Abstract: Coronavirus-cell entry programs involve virus-cell membrane fusions mediated by viral spike (S) proteins. Coronavirus S proteins acquire membrane fusion competence by receptor interactions, proteolysis, and acidification in endosomes. This review describes our current understanding of the S proteins, their interactions with and their responses to these entry triggers. We focus on receptors and proteases in prompting entry and highlight the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) known to activate several virus fusion proteins. These and other proteases are essential cofactors permitting coronavirus infection, conceivably being in proximity to cell-surface receptors and thus poised to split entering spike proteins into the fragments that refold to mediate membrane fusion. The review concludes by noting how understanding of coronavirus entry informs antiviral therapies.
Journal Title: Viruses
Volume: 4
Issue: 4
ISSN: 1999-4915
Publisher: Unknown  
Journal Place: Switzerland
Date Published: 2012
Start Page: 557
End Page: 580
Language: English
Notes: ID: 12530; Record Owner: From MEDLINE, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.; Status: MEDLINE; [Review]; Publishing Model: Journal available in: Print-Electronic Citation processed from: Internet; NLM Journal Code: 101509722; Other ID: Source: NLM. PMC3347323; CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance: 0 (Membrane Glycoproteins). 0 (Viral Envelope Proteins). 107476-75-5 (spike glycoprotein, coronavirus). EC 3-4 (Serine Proteases).; Electronic Date of Publication: 20120412; Entry Date: 20120905