Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic? Journal Article

Authors: Cashman, K. D.; Dowling, K. G.; Skrabakova, Z.; Gonzalez-Gross, M.; Valtuena, J.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Michaelsen, K. F.; Molgaard, C.; Jorde, R.; Grimnes, G.; Moschonis, G.; Mavrogianni, C.; Manios, Y.; Thamm, M.; Mensink, G. B.; Rabenberg, M.; Busch, M. A.; Cox, L.; Meadows, S.; Goldberg, G.; Prentice, A.; Dekker, J. M.; Nijpels, G.; Pilz, S.; Swart, K. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Lips, P.; Eiriksdottir, G; Gudnason, V; Cotch, M. F.; Koskinen, S.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.; Durazo-Arvizu, R. A.; Sempos, C. T.; Kiely, M.
Article Title: Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic?
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe. DESIGN: The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a totaln= 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. RESULTS: An overall pooled estimate, irrespective of age group, ethnic mix, and latitude of study populations, showed that 13.0% of the 55,844 European individuals had serum 25(OH)D concentrations 30 nmol/L on average in the year, with 17.7% and 8.3% in those sampled during the extended winter (October-March) and summer (April-November) periods, respectively. According to an alternate suggested definition of vitamin D deficiency (50 nmol/L), the prevalence was 40.4%. Dark-skinned ethnic subgroups had much higher (3- to 71-fold) prevalence of serum 25(OH)D 30 nmol/L than did white populations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of the European population.
Journal Title: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume: 103
Issue: 4
ISSN: 1938-3207; 0002-9165
Publisher: Unknown  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2016
Start Page: 1033
End Page: 1044
Language: eng
Notes: CI: (c) 2016; JID: 0376027; OTO: NOTNLM; 2015/08/04 [received]; 2015/12/28 [accepted]; 2016/02/10 [aheadofprint]; ppublish