Analysis of Bacterial Communities during Clostridium difficile Infection in the Mouse Journal Article

Authors: Semenyuk, E. G.; Poroyko, V. A.; Johnston, P. F.; Jones, S. E.; Knight, K. L.; Gerding, D. N.; Driks, A
Article Title: Analysis of Bacterial Communities during Clostridium difficile Infection in the Mouse
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of health care-associated disease. CDI initiates with ingestion of C. difficile spores, germination in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and then colonization of the large intestine. The interactions between C. difficile cells and other bacteria and with host mucosa during CDI remain poorly understood. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that, in a mouse model of CDI, C. difficile resides in multicellular communities (biofilms) in association with host mucosa. To do this, we paraffin embedded and then sectioned the GI tracts of infected mice at various days postinfection (p.i.). We then used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA probes targeting most bacteria as well as C. difficile specifically. The results revealed that C. difficile is present as a minority member of communities in the outer (loose) mucus layer, in the cecum and colon, starting at day 1 p.i. To generate FISH probes that identify bacteria within mucus-associated communities harboring C. difficile, we characterized bacterial populations in the infected mouse GI tract using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of bacterial DNA prepared from intestinal content. This analysis revealed the presence of genera of several families belonging to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. These data suggest that formation of multispecies communities associated with the mucus of the cecum and colon is an important early step in GI tract colonization. They raise the possibility that other bacterial species in these communities modulate the ability of C. difficile to successfully colonize and, thereby, cause disease.
Journal Title: Infection and immunity
Volume: 83
Issue: 11
ISSN: 1098-5522; 0019-9567
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2015
Start Page: 4383
End Page: 4391
Language: eng
Notes: CI: Copyright (c) 2015; JID: 0246127; 2015/02/25 [received]; 2015/08/28 [accepted]; 2015/08/31 [aheadofprint]; ppublish