Endogenous pro-thrombotic biomarkers from the arm and leg may not have the same value Journal Article

Authors: Lattimer, C. R.; Kalodiki, E.; Geroulakos, G.; Hoppensteadt, D; Fareed, J
Article Title: Endogenous pro-thrombotic biomarkers from the arm and leg may not have the same value
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Assessments of endogenous pro-thrombotic biomarkers are performed invariably on arm blood. However, the commonest site for thrombosis is in the leg. A leg blood sample may reflect local pro-thrombotic processes more accurately than systemic arm blood. The aim was to determine whether pro-thrombotic biomarkers from standard venous arm samples differed significantly from leg samples. METHOD: Concurrent blood samples were taken from an ankle/lower calf varicose vein and an ante-cubital vein in 24 patients awaiting laser treatment as well as age approximated and sex matched healthy controls without venous disease. The following assays were performed: thrombin-antithrombin (ng/ml), antithrombin (%) activity, microparticles (nM), fibrinogen (mg/dl), prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2) (pM) and P-selectin (ng/ml). RESULTS: Expressed as median (inter-quartile range). Significant arm/leg differences were observed in thrombin-antithrombin, antithrombin, prothrombin fragment 1.2 and P-selectin. The legs of patients had significantly reduced antithrombin activity and P-selectin concentrations compared to their arms (leg: 101 (90-108) versus arm: 112 (99-126), P = 0.001 and leg: 42 (26-52) versus 45 (27-52), P = 0.044, respectively). Control leg samples had significantly increased thrombin-antithrombin and P-selectin compared to control arm samples (leg: 2.1 (0.9-3.2) versus arm: 0.8 (0.5-1.7), P = 0.015 and leg: 36 (24-50) versus arm: 30 (23-41), P = 0.007, respectively). However, the control legs had significantly reduced F1.2 (leg: 265 (230-333) versus arm: 299 (236-361), P = 0.028). No significant arm/leg differences were detected in the microparticle or fibrinogen levels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that venous arm blood is significantly different from venous leg blood in four out of six biomarkers studied. Recognition of local venous leg sampling as a site for investigation may unravel why the leg has a greater predisposition to thrombosis and lead the way towards an arm/leg differential test.
Journal Title: Phlebology / Venous Forum of the Royal Society of Medicine
ISSN: 1758-1125; 0268-3555
Publisher: Sage  
Date Published: 2015
Language: ENG
Notes: LR: 20150531; CI: (c) The Author(s) 2015; JID: 9012921; OTO: NOTNLM; aheadofprint