Using Intraoperative Portable CT Scan to Minimize Reintervention Rates in PCNL: A Prospective Trial. Journal Article

Authors: Patel, PM; Kandabarow, AM; Chuang, E; McKenzie, K; Druck, A; Seffren, C; Blanco-Martinez, E; Capoccia, E; Farooq, AV; Branch, J; Turk, T; Baldea, K
Article Title: Using Intraoperative Portable CT Scan to Minimize Reintervention Rates in PCNL: A Prospective Trial.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 40% of patients undergoing PCNL are left with residual stone fragments and often require secondary procedures. Portable CT (PCT) technology allows surgeons to obtain intraoperative cross-sectional imaging, identify and extract residual stones immediately, and thereby reduce the need for subsequent procedures. This prospective trial evaluates how incorporation of PCT during PCNL affects perioperative outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled eligible patients undergoing initial PCNL for this trial (n=60), which entailed a single intraoperative CT-abdomen and ipsilateral antegrade ureteroscopy when the surgeon felt stone treatment was visually complete. If residual fragments were identified, the surgeon continued nephroscopy to find and remove them; if not, the procedure was concluded. These patients were compared to a retrospective cohort (n=174) who underwent initial PCNL with post-operative imaging performed the following day. RESULTS: The two cohorts had similar demographic properties and stone characteristics, and location of percutaneous access. In the prospective arm, 50% of intraoperative PCT scans identified residual fragments, prompting continuation of surgery to remove them. This cohort had significantly higher stone-free rate (82% vs. 36%, p0.01), lower rate of planned reintervention (7% vs. 32%, p0.01), lower rate of urgent presentation with ureteral obstruction (0% vs. 7%, p=0.04), lower total CT-based effective radiation dose (8.4 vs. 14.6 mSv, p0.01), and shorter length of stay (2.3 vs. 3.5 days, p0.01) when compared to the retrospective cohort that did not use intraoperative PCT. CONCLUSIONS: Obtaining an intraoperative portable CT scan during PCNL can substantially improve perioperative outcomes. Further evaluation of this modality through a randomized-controlled trial is warranted.
Journal Title: Journal of Endourology
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2022