Protection from Clostridium difficile infection in CD4 T Cell- and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient mice Journal Article

Authors: Johnston, P. F.; Gerding, D. N.; Knight, K. L.
Article Title: Protection from Clostridium difficile infection in CD4 T Cell- and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient mice
Abstract: Clostridium difficile rivals methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the primary hospital-acquired infection. C. difficile infection (CDI) caused by toxins A and/or B can manifest as mild diarrhea to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Although most patients recover fully from CDI, ~20% undergo recurrent disease. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between anti-toxin antibody (Ab) and decreased recurrence; however, the contributions of the systemic and mucosal Ab responses remain unclear. Our goal was to use the CDI mouse model to characterize the protective immune response to C. difficile. C57BL/6 mice infected with epidemic C. difficile strain BI17 developed protective immunity against CDI and did not develop CDI upon rechallenge; they generated systemic IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA Ab to toxin. To determine if protective immunity to C. difficile could be generated in immunodeficient individuals, we infected CD4(-/-) mice and found that they generated both mucosal and serum IgA anti-toxin Abs and were protected from CDI upon rechallenge, with protection dependent on major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) expression; no IgG anti-toxin Ab was found. We found that protection was likely due to neutralizing mucosal IgA Ab. In contrast, pIgR(-/-) mice, which lack the receptor to transcytose polymeric Ab across the epithelium, were also protected from CDI, suggesting that although mucosal anti-toxin Ab may contribute to protection, it is not required. We conclude that protection from CDI can occur by several mechanisms and that the mechanism of protection is determined by the state of immunocompetence of the host.
Keywords: Animals; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Antibodies, Bacterial/blood; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology; Clostridium Infections/immunology/microbiology/prevention control; Clostridium difficile/immunology; Disease Models, Animal; Immunoglobulin A/analysis/blood; Immunoglobulin G/blood; Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin/deficiency/immunology; Microbiology and Immunology
Journal Title: Infection and immunity
Volume: 82
Issue: 2
ISSN: 1098-5522; 0019-9567
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2014
Start Page: 522
End Page: 531
Language: eng
Notes: GR: AI50260/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States; JID: 0246127; 0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Immunoglobulin A); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin); OID: NLM: PMC3911374 [Available on 08/01/14]; PMCR: 2014/08/01 00:00; 2013/11/11 [aheadofprint]; ppublish