Invasive fungal infection after heart transplantation: A 7-year, single-center experience. Journal Article

Authors: Echenique, IA; Angarone, MP; Gordon, RA; Rich, J; Anderson, AS; McGee, EC; Abicht, TO; Kang, J; Stosor, V
Article Title: Invasive fungal infection after heart transplantation: A 7-year, single-center experience.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an infrequent but major complication of heart transplantation (HT). We sought to describe the epidemiology at our institution. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 159 heart transplant recipients was performed from June 2005 to December 2012. IFIs were defined by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. RESULTS: By univariate analysis, Hispanic ethnicity was associated with IFI (P=.01, odds ratio [OR] 7.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-27.9). Subsequently, a multivariate logistic regression was performed adjusting for Hispanic ethnicity, age, and gender. Seventeen IFIs were identified, occurring at a median 110 days post HT (interquartile range: 32-411 days). Five IFIs (29% of IFIs and 3.1% of all HT) occurred during the HT hospitalization, with 13 IFIs during the first year (incidence 8.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence was 10.7%. IFIs were associated with pre- and post-HT vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization and/or infection, post-HT renal replacement therapy, anti-thymocyte globulin induction, and antibody-mediated rejection. There were no associations with diabetes mellitus, desensitization, 2R/3R cellular rejection, treatments for rejection, re-operation, neutropenia, or cytomegalovirus infection. IFIs were associated with death (P=.02, OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.1) and 1-year mortality (P.001, OR 9.0, 95% CI 2.3-35.7), but not 3-year mortality. Associations with Hispanic ethnicity must be validated. Optimal strategies for risk reduction and prophylaxis remain undefined.
Journal Title: Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society
ISSN: 1399-3062; 1398-2273
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2017