A model for the estimate of local image velocity by cells in the visual cortex Journal Article

Authors: Grzywacz, N. M.; Yuille, A. L.
Article Title: A model for the estimate of local image velocity by cells in the visual cortex
Abstract: Some computational theories of motion perception assume that the first stage en route to this perception is the local estimate of image velocity. However, this assumption is not supported by data from the primary visual cortex. Its motion sensitive cells are not selective to velocity, but rather are directionally selective and tuned to spatio-temporal frequencies. Accordingly, physiologically based theories start with filters selective to oriented spatio-temporal frequencies. This paper shows that computational and physiological theories do not necessarily conflict, because such filters may, as a population, compute velocity locally. To prove this point, we show how to combine the outputs of a class of frequency tuned filters to detect local image velocity. Furthermore, we show that the combination of filters may simulate 'Pattern' cells in the middle temporal area (MT), whereas each filter simulates primary visual cortex cells. These simulations include three properties of the primary cortex. First, the spatio-temporal frequency tuning curves of the individual filters display approximate space-time separability. Secondly, their direction-of-motion tuning curves depend on the distribution of orientations of the components of the Fourier decomposition and speed of the stimulus. Thirdly, the filters show facilitation and suppression for responses to apparent motions in the preferred and null directions, respectively. It is suggested that the MT's role is not to solve the aperture problem, but to estimate velocities from primary cortex information. The spatial integration that accounts for motion coherence may be postponed to a later cortical stage.
Journal Title: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.Series B, Biological sciences
Volume: 239
Issue: 1295
ISSN: 0950-1193
Publisher: Unknown  
Journal Place: England
Date Published: 1990
Start Page: 129
End Page: 161
Language: eng
Notes: J2: Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci