American Ancestry Is a Risk Factor for Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hispanic/Latino Adults. Journal Article

Authors: Kallwitz, ER; Tayo, BO; Kuniholm, MH; Cai, J; Daviglus, M; Cooper, RS; Cotler, SJ
Article Title: American Ancestry Is a Risk Factor for Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hispanic/Latino Adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disproportionally affects Hispanic/Latino populations. However, the magnitude varies among Hispanic/Latino ethnic groups. We investigated the mechanisms of these disparities. METHODS: We examined associations of NAFLD-associated genetic variants and continental ancestry with suspected NAFLD, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver fibrosis using data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos-a population-based study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. We evaluated data from 16,415 Hispanic/Latino adults in 4 cities from 2008 through 2011. Subjects suspected of having NAFLD or liver fibrosis were identified based on unexplained increases in levels of aminotransferases and FIB-4 score, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 9342 participants with available genetic and aminotransferase data, the PNPLA3 G allele (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.41-1.66), TM6SF2 T allele (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.20-1.67), and PPP1R3B G allele (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06-1.28) were associated with suspected NAFLD. PNPLA3 G was also associated with increased levels of ALT, except in participants with Dominican and South American backgrounds, and with liver fibrosis. The frequency of PNPLA3 G was high (41%) and TM6SF2 T (5%) was low in Hispanic/Latinos. PNPLA3 G frequency differed among Hispanic background groups with the highest proportion in Mexicans (52%) and the lowest proportion in Dominicans (23%). After adjustment for demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors, as well as PNPLA3 G, TM6SF2 T, and PPP1R3B G, American ancestry had a positive association with level of ALT (r = 6.61%; P .001), whereas African (r = -3.84%; P .001) and European (r = -4.31%; P .001) ancestry were inversely associated with level of ALT. CONCLUSIONS: American ancestry and PNPLA3 G are independent predictors of ALT levels in US Hispanic/Latinos and may in part explain NAFLD disparities in US Hispanic/Latinos.
Journal Title: Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
ISSN: 1542-7714; 1542-3565
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2019