Contemporary Management of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in the Endovascular Era. Journal Article

Authors: Lim, S; Halandras, PM; Bechara, C; Aulivola, B; Crisostomo, P
Article Title: Contemporary Management of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in the Endovascular Era.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a rare disease entity associated with high morbidity and mortality. Disparate etiologies and nonspecific symptoms make the diagnosis challenging and often result in delayed diagnosis and intervention. Open laparotomy with mesenteric revascularization and resection of necrotic bowel has been considered the gold standard of care. With recent advances in percutaneous catheter-directed techniques, multiple retrospective studies have demonstrated the outcomes of endovascular therapy. Herein, we review the etiology, presentation, and diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia with contemporary outcomes associated with both open and endovascular treatments. METHODS:: The PubMed electronic database was queried in the English language using the search words mesenteric, acute ischemia, embolism, thromboembolism, thrombosis, revascularization, and endovascular in various combinations. Abstracts of the relevant titles were examined to confirm their relevance and the full articles then extracted. References from extracted articles were checked for any additional relevant articles. This systematic review encompassed literature for the past 5 years (between 2011 and 2016). RESULTS:: Early diagnosis and intervention improves acute mesenteric ischemia outcomes. Early restoration of mesenteric flow minimizes morbidity and mortality. In comparison to open laparotomy with mesenteric revascularization and resection of necrotic bowel, several retrospective studies using administrative data and single-center chart reviews demonstrate noninferior outcomes of an endovascular first approach in acute arterial mesenteric occlusion. CONCLUSIONS:: For acute mesenteric arterial occlusive disease, both endovascular and open revascularization techniques are viable options. Although there is lack of level 1 evidence, single-center retrospective studies and administrative database studies demonstrated that an endovascular first approach may have improved outcomes in the immediate postoperative period. However, selection and other bias in these studies necessitate the need for definitive randomized prospective studies between endovascular and open mesenteric intervention. In contrast, mesenteric venous thrombosis may be treated with systemic anticoagulation without surgical revascularization. Catheter-directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis can be considered at the discretion of the clinician.
Journal Title: Vascular and endovascular surgery
ISSN: 1938-9116; 1538-5744
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2018