A Dirichlet-Multinomial Bayes Classifier for Disease Diagnosis with Microbial Compositions Journal Article

Authors: Gao, X; Lin, H; Dong, Q
Article Title: A Dirichlet-Multinomial Bayes Classifier for Disease Diagnosis with Microbial Compositions
Abstract: Dysbiosis of microbial communities is associated with various human diseases, raising the possibility of using microbial compositions as biomarkers for disease diagnosis. We have developed a Bayes classifier by modeling microbial compositions with Dirichlet-multinomial distributions, which are widely used to model multicategorical count data with extra variation. The parameters of the Dirichlet-multinomial distributions are estimated from training microbiome data sets based on maximum likelihood. The posterior probability of a microbiome sample belonging to a disease or healthy category is calculated based on Bayes#39; theorem, using the likelihood values computed from the estimated Dirichlet-multinomial distribution, as well as a prior probability estimated from the training microbiome data set or previously published information on disease prevalence. When tested on real-world microbiome data sets, our method, called DMBC (for Dirichlet-multinomial Bayes classifier), shows better classification accuracy than the only existing Bayesian microbiome classifier based on a Dirichlet-multinomial mixture model and the popular random forest method. The advantage of DMBC is its built-in automatic feature selection, capable of identifying a subset of microbial taxa with the best classification accuracy between different classes of samples based on cross-validation. This unique ability enables DMBC to maintain and even improve its accuracy at modeling species-level taxa. The R package for DMBC is freely available at https://github.com/qunfengdong/DMBC. IMPORTANCE By incorporating prior information on disease prevalence, Bayes classifiers have the potential to estimate disease probability better than other common machine-learning methods. Thus, it is important to develop Bayes classifiers specifically tailored for microbiome data. Our method shows higher classification accuracy than the only existing Bayesian classifier and the popular random forest method, and thus provides an alternative option for using microbial compositions for disease diagnosis.
Journal Title: mSphere
Volume: 2
Issue: 6
ISSN: 2379-5042; 2379-5042
Publisher: Unknown  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2017
Start Page: 10.1128/mSphereDirect.00536
End Page: 17. eCollection 2017 Nov-Dec
Language: eng
Notes: LR: 20171220; GR: R01 AI116706/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States; GR: R01 DK104718/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States; JID: 101674533; OTO: NOTNLM; 2017/11/10 00:00 [received]; 2017/11/29 00:00 [accepted]; 2017/12/16 06:00 [entrez]; 2017/12/16 06:00 [pubmed]; 2017/12/16 06:01 [medline]; epublish