Brainstem origins of glutamatergic innervation of the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus Journal Article

Authors: Ziegler, D. R.; Edwards, M. R.; Ulrich-Lai, Y. M.; Herman, J. P.; Cullinan, W. E.
Article Title: Brainstem origins of glutamatergic innervation of the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus
Abstract: Multiple lines of evidence document a role for glutamatergic input to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) in stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. However, the neuroanatomical origins of the glutamatergic input have yet to be definitively determined. We have previously shown that vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is the predominant VGLUT isoform expressed in the basal forebrain and brainstem, including PVH-projecting regions, and that the PVH is preferentially innervated by VGLUT2-immunoreactive terminals/boutons. The present study employed a dual-labeling approach, combining immunolabeling for a retrograde tract tracer, Fluoro-Gold (FG), with in situ hybridization for VGLUT2 mRNA, to map the brainstem and caudal forebrain distribution of glutamatergic PVH-projecting neurons. The present report presents evidence for substantial dual labeling in the periaqueductal gray, caudal portions of the zona incerta and subparafascicular nucleus, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus. The current data also suggest that relatively few PVH-projecting neurons in ascending raphe nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, or ventrolateral medulla are VGLUT2 positive. The data reveal multiple brainstem origins of glutamatergic input to PVH that are positioned to play a role in transducing a diverse range of stressful stimuli.
Journal Title: The Journal of comparative neurology
Volume: 520
Issue: 11
ISSN: 1096-9861; 0021-9967
Publisher: Wiley Periodicals, Inc  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2012
Start Page: 2369
End Page: 2394
Language: eng
Notes: LR: 20150522; CI: Copyright (c) 2012; GR: DK078906/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States; GR: K01 DK078906/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States; GR: MH069860/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States; GR: MH69725/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States; GR: R01 MH069725/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States; GR: R01 MH069860/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States; JID: 0406041; 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Slc17a6 protein, rat); 0 (Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2); 3KX376GY7L (Glutamic Acid); NIHMS542083; OID: NLM: NIHMS542083; OID: NLM: PMC4440805; ppublish