Adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton protein modulates innate immunity through apoptotic mimicry Journal Article

Authors: Radke, J. R.; Grigera, F.; Ucker, D. S.; Cook, J. L.
Article Title: Adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton protein modulates innate immunity through apoptotic mimicry
Abstract: Cells that undergo apoptosis in response to chemical or physical stimuli repress inflammatory reactions, but cells that undergo nonapoptotic death in response to such stimuli lack this activity. Whether cells dying from viral infection exhibit a cell death-type modulatory effect on inflammatory reactions is unknown. We compared the effects on macrophage inflammatory responses of cells dying an apoptotic or a nonapoptotic death as a result of adenoviral infection. The results were exactly opposite to the predictions from the conventional paradigm. Cells dying by apoptosis induced by infection with an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 19-kilodalton (E1B 19K) gene deletion mutant did not repress macrophage NF-kappaB activation or cytokine responses to proinflammatory stimuli, whereas cells dying a nonapoptotic death from infection with E1B 19K-competent, wild-type Ad5 repressed these macrophage inflammatory responses as well as cells undergoing classical apoptosis in response to chemical injury. The immunorepressive, E1B 19K-related cell death activity depended upon direct contact of the virally infected corpses with responder macrophages. Replacement of the viral E1B 19K gene with the mammalian Bcl-2 gene in cis restored the nonapoptotic, immunorepressive cell death activity of virally infected cells. These results define a novel function of the antiapoptotic, adenoviral E1B 19K protein that may limit local host innate immune inflammation during accumulation of virally infected cells at sites of infection and suggest that E1B 19K-deleted, replicating adenoviral vectors might induce greater inflammatory responses to virally infected cells than E1B 19K-positive vectors, because of the net effect of their loss-of-function mutation. IMPORTANCE: We observed that cells dying a nonapoptotic cell death induced by adenovirus infection repressed macrophage proinflammatory responses while cells dying by apoptosis induced by infection with an E1B 19K deletion mutant virus did not repress macrophage proinflammatory responses and enhanced some cytokine responses. Our results define a new function of the antiapoptotic, adenoviral protein E1B 19K, which we have termed "apoptotic mimicry." Our studies suggest the possibility that the presence or absence of this E1B 19K function could alter the immunological outcome of both natural and therapeutic adenoviral infections. For example, emerging, highly immunopathogenic adenovirus serotypes might induce increased host inflammatory responses as a result of altered E1B 19K function or expression. It is also possible that engineered variations in E1B 19K expression/function could be created during adenovirus vector design that would increase the therapeutic efficacy of replicating adenovirus vectors for vaccines or oncolytic viral targeting of neoplastic cells.
Journal Title: Journal of virology
Volume: 88
Issue: 5
ISSN: 1098-5514; 0022-538X
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2014
Start Page: 2658
End Page: 2669
Language: eng
Notes: LR: 20141112; GR: AG029633/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States; JID: 0113724; 0 (Adenovirus E1B Proteins); 0 (Inflammation Mediators); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2); OID: NLM: PMC3958100; 2013/12/18 [aheadofprint]; ppublish