Need for Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Scald Burns: Why it Happens and Why it Matters Journal Article

Authors: Mosier, M. J.; Peter, T.; Gamelli, R. L.
Article Title: Need for Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Scald Burns: Why it Happens and Why it Matters
Abstract: Scald burns are the most common thermal injury among children. A small subset of pediatric scald burns are complicated by the need for mechanical ventilation (MV). Studies suggest that 4 to 5% of pediatric scald burns will require MV, and these patients tend to be younger with larger burns. Identifying why pediatric patients with scald burns require MV has remained unclear, and few studies have sought to elucidate possible mechanisms. After institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of all pediatric patients with scald burns admitted to the Burn Center between 2010 and 2013 was conducted. Variables collected included age, sex, weight, height, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status or type of insurance, hospital length of stay, burn size and location, Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) involvement, time to intubation from admission, reason for intubation, need for MV, duration of MV, need for operative intervention, 24-hour and 48-hour total fluid intake and urine output, glucose levels, infectious complications, comorbidities, and mortality. Patients who required MV were then compared with those who did not require MV to identify statistically significant differences between groups. The MV patients (n = 6) and nonventilated patients (n = 339) did not show significant differences in regards to gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and type of insurance; however, MV patients were younger and had larger burns. The mean age of MV patients was 8.2 + 5.0 months compared with 40.7 + 45.2 months for non-MV (P = .002). The mean percentage of TBSA burn in MV patients was 17.3 + 9.0% compared with 4.5 + 3.9% for non-MV (P .001). Burn location was significant, and 66.6% of MV patients had burns on the face or neck compared with 23.6% of non-MV (P = .015). MV patients were more likely to have been victims of child abuse, as DCFS was involved in 67% of MV patients vs 28% of non-MV patients (P = .036). Fifty percent of patients requiring MV had either a preceding upper respiratory infection, diagnosis of asthma, or congenital defects, compared with 6% of non-MV patients (P = .004). MV patients received more fluids for 48 hours compared with non-MV patients (2275.7 vs 1332.3 ml, P = .013) and had a higher 48-hour urine output (2.34 vs 1.34 ml/kg/hr, P = .013). Pediatric scald burns that require MV have an increased mortality risk and length of stay. MV patients were younger with larger burns. They received more fluids than non-MV patients, and child abuse, asthma, and stress hyperglycemia within the first 72 hours of injury were common among MV patients. Importantly, burn size and previous history of asthma were found to be independent predictors of the need for MV.
Journal Title: Journal of burn care research : official publication of the American Burn Association
ISSN: 1559-0488; 1559-047X
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2015
Language: ENG
Notes: LR: 20150819; JID: 101262774; aheadofprint