The utilization and utility of immunostains in body fluid cytology. Journal Article


Authors: Alshaikh, S; Lapadat, R; Atieh, MK; Mehrotra, S; Barkan, GA; Wojcik, EM; Pambuccian, SE
Article Title: The utilization and utility of immunostains in body fluid cytology.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Body fluid cytology (BFC) is an important tool in the diagnosis and staging of malignancy and is aided by the judicious use of immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim of this study was to determine the usage rates of IHC stains in BFC, their type and indications, and their diagnostic impact. We also attempted to estimate the optimal rate of IHC use in BFC by comparing the entire laboratory's and each individual cytopathologist's IHC use rates with their respective indeterminate and malignant diagnosis rates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of IHC stain use in BFC during a 5.5-year interval (2013-2018) and determined the laboratory's and each individual cytopathologist's IHC usage patterns according to the final diagnosis, site, and indications for their use. RESULTS: A total of 477 out of 4144 (11.5%) BFC cases had 2128 individual immunostains performed, with an average of 4.5 immunostains per case. Individual cytopathologists used IHC stains on 6.7% to 22% of their BFC cases. Pathologists with higher rates of IHC stain use than the laboratory's mean were less experienced and had higher rates of indeterminate but not of malignant diagnoses. The most common indication for the use of IHC stains was differentiating mesothelial from malignant cells. MOC31, calretinin, Ber-EP4, CD68, and D2-40 were the most commonly used of the 67 different IHC stains used in BFC. CONCLUSIONS: The laboratory's mean may represent the optimal IHC use rate, as higher IHC use rates did not lead to more diagnostic certainty or higher pickup rates of malignant cells.
Journal Title: Cancer cytopathology
ISSN: 1934-6638; 1934-662X
Publisher: American Cancer Society  
Date Published: 2020