A Five-year Prospective Multi-center Evaluation of Influenza Infection in Transplant Recipients. Journal Article

Authors: Kumar, D; Ferreira, VH; Blumberg, E; Silveira, F; Cordero, E; Perez-Romero, P; Aydillo, T; Danziger-Isakov, L; Limaye, AP; Carratala, J; Munoz, P; Montejo, M; Lopez-Medrano, F; Farinas, MC; Gavalda, J; Moreno, A; Levi, M; Fortun, J; Torre-Cisneros, J; Englund, JA; Natori, Y; Husain, S; Reid, G; Sharma, TS; Humar, A
Article Title: A Five-year Prospective Multi-center Evaluation of Influenza Infection in Transplant Recipients.
Abstract: Background: Seasonal influenza infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of symptomatic influenza infection post-transplant and determine risk factors for severe disease. Methods: Twenty centers in the U.S., Canada and Spain prospectively enrolled solid organ transplant (SOT) or stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with microbiologically-confirmed in?uenza over five consecutive years (2010-15). Demographics, microbiology data, and outcomes were collected. Serial nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at diagnosis (day 0),3,6,11,18, 28 days and quantitative PCR for influenza A was performed. Results: We enrolled 616 patients with confirmed influenza (477 SOT; 139 HSCT); Most infections (77.3%) were in?uenza A. Pneumonia at presentation was seen in 134/606(22.1%). Antiviral therapy was given to 94.1% for a median of 5 days (range 1-42). 66.5% patients were hospitalized and 11.0% required ICU care with 8.0% needing mechanical ventilation. The receipt of vaccine in the same influenza season was associated with a decrease in disease severity as determined by the presence of pneumonia (OR 0.34 (95%CI 0.21-0.55), p0.001) and ICU admission (OR 0.49 (95%CI 0.26-0.90), p=0.023). Similarly, early antiviral treatment (within 48 hours) was associated with improved outcomes. In patients with influenza A, pneumonia, ICU admission, and not being immunized were also associated with higher viral loads at presentation (p=0.018, p=0.008, p=0.024 respectively). Conclusion: Annual influenza vaccination and early antiviral therapy are associated with a significant reduction in influenza-associated morbidity, and should be emphasized as strategies to improve outcomes of transplant recipients.
Journal Title: Clinical Infectious Diseases
ISSN: 1058-4838
Publisher: Unknown  
Date Published: 2018
LUC Authors
  1. Gail Reid
    16 Reid
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