Acute immunomodulatory effects of binge alcohol ingestion Journal Article

Authors: Afshar, M; Richards, S.; Mann, D.; Cross, A.; Smith, G. B.; Netzer, G; Kovacs, E.; Hasday, J.
Article Title: Acute immunomodulatory effects of binge alcohol ingestion
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blood alcohol is present in a third of trauma patients and has been associated with organ dysfunction. In both human studies and in animal models, it is clear that alcohol intoxication exerts immunomodulatory effects several hours to days after exposure, when blood alcohol is no longer detectable. The early immunomodulatory effects of alcohol while blood alcohol is still elevated are not well understood. METHODS: Human volunteers achieved binge alcohol intoxication after high-dose alcohol consumption. Blood was collected for analysis prior to alcohol ingestion, and 20 min, 2 h, and 5 h after alcohol ingestion. Flow cytometry was performed on isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokine generation in whole blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after 24-h stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemagglutinin-M (PHA) stimulation. RESULTS: An early pro-inflammatory state was evident at 20 min when blood alcohol levels were approximately 130 mg/dL, which was characterized by an increase in total circulating leukocytes, monocytes, and natural killer cells. During this time, a transient increase in LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels and enhanced LPS sensitivity occurred. At 2 and 5 h post-alcohol binge, an anti-inflammatory state was shown with reduced numbers of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells, attenuated LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1beta levels, and a trend toward increased interleukin (IL)-10 levels. CONCLUSIONS: A single episode of binge alcohol intoxication exerted effects on the immune system that caused an early and transient pro-inflammatory state followed by an anti-inflammatory state.
Keywords: Surgery; Cytokines; Ethanol; Binge drinking; Antigen-presenting cells; Innate immunity; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Journal Title: Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
Volume: 49
Issue: 1
ISSN: 1873-6823; 0741-8329
Publisher: Elsevier Inc  
Journal Place: United States
Date Published: 2015
Start Page: 57
End Page: 64
Language: eng
Notes: CI: Copyright (c) 2015; JID: 8502311; OTO: NOTNLM; 2014/08/19 [received]; 2014/09/30 [revised]; 2014/10/08 [accepted]; 2014/12/05 [aheadofprint]; ppublish